Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material
What is NORM?
NORM (or Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) is a by-product typically produced from oil and gas exploration or mining - but can be an industrial waste. These radioactive elements are naturally found at low concentrations in the earth's crust.
What is NORM made of?
NORM can be made of uranium, thorium, plutonium, radium, radon, or any other daughter products of these radionuclides.
Does NORM pose health hazards?
Yes, if NORM is ingested or inhaled it can cause health problems. NORM is known as a "bone seeker" - meaning that when it enters the body it can migrate to the tissues connected to bones and concentrate itself there; ultimately, this can cause cancer and/or death.
What detects NORM?
Geiger Counter, with Geiger-Mueller tube/probe (you can read about that elsewhere online and how that works). These machines are sometimes called a Ludlum machine and has to be calibrated periodically.
When do I have to get a NORM survey done?
Periodic: Initial, Continuing operations, property/equipment transfers.
Maintenance: Special activities
Unrestricted Release: When the well site is being given back to the land owner, etc.
Typically there is a survey conducted every 5 years on each site.
If there is equipment onsite that reads high and the report is submitted there may have to be a follow-up survey.
Read more information with the link below:
Mississippi Oil and Gas Rules: (Skip to page 194 to see RULE 69 Oil Field NORM)